Ohms Law Explained – The basics circuit theory

Ohms Law Explained – The basics circuit theory

– Hey there guys, Paul here
from theengineeringmindset.com In this video we’re going
to be looking at Ohm’s Law to understand how it works
as well as how to use it. There are also two problems
at the end of this video for you to test your knowledge
and see if you can solve. So, what is Ohm’s Law? Ohm’s Law is a relationship between voltage, current, and resistance and how they relate to each other. Ohm’s Law was developed
by German physicist, named Georg Ohm, who undertook many experiments
to develop his theory, including measuring current by touching the live electrical circuits to see how much it hurt. As you might imagine, the higher the current, the more it hurt. Now, there are three formulas
we need to use for Ohm’s Law, but we don’t actually
need to remember these and I’ll show you a super
easy tip in just a moment. So, the three formulas
we use for Ohm’s Law are, voltage equals current
multiplied by resistance, current equals voltage
divided by resistance, and resistance equals
voltage divided by current. If that seems like a lot to
remember, then don’t worry, because we don’t need to remember them. All we need to remember is Ohm’s triangle, which looks like this. So, you just need to remember
these three letters in order. V-I-R. Then we just write
those down in a triangle with V at the top and we draw a line to
separate the letters. In fact, you don’t even
need to remember those, because I’ve made a free PDF guide for you with some worked examples
which you can keep on your PC or your mobile and
access wherever you need. Links for that can be found in the video description down below. Now, all we do when we
need to use a formula is cover up the letter we need. So, if we want to find the voltage, then we write V=and then we cover up
the V in the triangle. That leaves us with I and R, so we write I multiplied by R, which means voltage equals
current multiplied by resistance. You can write a little
multiplication symbol in the triangle between the two letters if it helps you. Now, I know what you’re thinking. Why is current represented with a letter I and not a C for current? Or even a letter A for the unit of Ampere. Well the unit of current
is the Ampere or the Amp and this is named after Andre
Ampere, a French physicist. A couple of hundred years ago, he undertook lots of experiments, many involved varying the
amount of electrical current. So, he called this intensite du courant or the intensity of current. So, when he published his
work, they took the letter I and it became standard until this day. Now, you might also come across
formulas where the letter E is used instead of V. The letter E stands for
EMF, or Electromotive Force, but don’t worry about that, just stick to using V
and substitute V for E if you see it used in
Ohm’s Law’s questions. Anyway, so by covering V, we get voltage equals current
multiplied by resistance. If we want to find current then we write down I=and then we cover up the
letter I in the triangle. That gives us V and R, so as V is above the R like a fraction we can write V divided by R. Therefore, current is equal to voltage divided by resistance. If we want to find resistance, then we write down R=and then we cover up R in the triangle. That leaves us with V and I. So, we write V divided by I, which gives us resistance
equals the voltage divided by current. Let’s look at some examples
for how to use these formulas. First, let’s see how we find voltage and how it relates to the other parts. Let’s say we have a
simple electrical circuit with a battery and a resistor. We don’t know what the voltage
of the battery is though. The resistor is 3 Ohms and when we connect a multi
meter into the circuit, we see that we get a reading
of two Amps of current. We want to find the voltage. So, using Ohm’s triangle,
we can cover up the V and that gives us V
equals I multiplied by R. We know the current is two
Amps so we can write that in and we know the resistance is three Ohms, so we can write that in also. Therefore, two Amps
multiplied by three Ohms, gives us six volts. The battery is therefore six volts. Now, if you want to check your
answers for Ohm’s questions, then I’ve built a free
calculator on the website. You can just drop your numbers in and it will do the calculation for you. Links for that again, in the
video description down below. Coming back to the circuit,
if we now double the voltage by connecting two six volt
batteries in a series, we get 12 volts. If we now connect this
to the same circuit, the current also doubles
from two Amps to four Amps. If we double the voltage
again to 24 volts, the current will also
double to eight Amps. So, what’s the relationship here? We can see that current is therefore directly proportional to voltage. If we double the voltage,
we double the current. Remember, voltage is like pressure, it’s the pushing force in the circuit. It pushes the electrons around the wires and we place things like lamps
in the way of these electrons so that they have to flow through these and that causes the lamp to light up. By doubling the voltage we see that the current also doubles, meaning that more electrons are flowing and this occurs as we apply
more pressure or more voltage. This is just like if we were
to use a bigger water pump then more water will flow. Okay, so what about finding current? Let’s say we now have a three Amp lamp connected to a six volt power supply. To find the current, we write down I=and then we cover up I in the triangle. That gives us V divided by R, so current equals voltage
divided by resistance. We know the voltage is six volts and the resistance is at three Ohms, so the current is therefore two Amps and that’s what we see on the multi-meter. By the way, if you
don’t have a multi-meter then I highly recommend you get one. It’s essential for troubleshooting, but also building your
essential electrical knowledge. I will leave some links down below for which one to get and from where. So, we saw what happens
when we use a resistance of three Ohms in the circuit, but if we double the
resistance to six Ohms by placing another three
Ohm lamp into the circuit, the current halves are just one Amp. If we double the resistance
again to 12 Ohms, the current will half again to .05 Amps. We can visually see this because the lamps will become less bright
as the current reduces from the increase in resistance. So, what’s the relationship here? We can see that the current
is inversely proportional to the resistance. When we double the resistance, the current will decrease by half. If we half the resistance
the current will double. Current is the flow of electrons or the flow of free electrons. For us to make this lamp shine, we need to push electrons through it. How do we do that? We apply a voltage across the two ends. The voltage will push the electrons. The atoms inside the copper wire have free electrons in
their valance shell, which means they can very easily
move to other copper atoms. They will naturally move to
other atoms by themselves, but this will be in random directions, which is of no use to us. For the lamp to turn on, we need lots of electrons to
flow in the same direction. When we connect a voltage source, we use the pressure of a
battery to push the electrons through the circuit all
in the same direction. For example, to power this
1.5 Ohm resistive lamp, with a 1.5 volt battery, requires one Amp of current. This is equal to six quintillion, two hundred and forty
two quadrillion electrons passing from the battery and through the lamp every second. And if you can achieve this, then the lamp will stay
at full brightness. If the voltage or current reduces or the resistance of
the circuit increases, then the lamp will become dimmer. Okay, now let’s look
at finding resistance. Say we have a resistive lamp connected to a 12 volt power supply. We don’t know how much resistance
is adding to the circuit, but we measure the current at 0.5 Amps. To find the resistance, we write down R=and then we cover up
the R in the triangle. We’re left with V and I, so resistance equals
voltage divided by current. We know the voltage is 12 volts and the current is 0.5 Amps, so 12 divided by 0.5 gives
us 24 Ohms of resistance. Resistance is the opposition
to the flow of electrons. It tries to prevent
electrons from flowing. That’s why we use resistance in circuits to reduce the current and protect
components such as an LED. If we tied to connect an LED directly to a nine volt battery, it would blow out because the voltage and
the current are too high. But, when we add a
resistor into the circuit, then these are reduced, so the LED is protected
and will shine brightly. So, given the circuit, we
can increase the current by increasing the voltage. Or we can also increase the current by reducing the resistance. We can also reduce the current
by increasing the resistance. Okay, time for you to test your skills. Can you solve these problems? I will leave a link for
the answer and the solution in the video description down below. Problem one: Let’s say we have this lamp which has a resistance of 240 Ohms. If we plug this into an outlet in the US, which uses 120 volts, what will the current be? Problem two: If I plug the same 240 Ohm resistive lamp into an outlet in the UK, we get a current of 0.958 Amps. So, what is the voltage
being applied here? Okay guys, that’s it for this video, but to continue your learning then check out one of the
videos on the screen now and I’ll catch you there
for the next lesson. Don’t forget to follow us on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, as well as theengineeringmindset.com

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45 thoughts on “Ohms Law Explained – The basics circuit theory

  1. ⚠️ Found this video super useful? Buy Paul a coffee to say thanks: ☕

    PayPal: https://www.paypal.me/TheEngineerinMindset

  2. double the voltage automatically doubles the current (1amp=1coulomb)
    FOR a GIVEN resistance. Current in a given conductor is LIMITED to the
    diameter of the wire. Great basic video. Thank you.

  3. Sometimes science is just turtles all the way down:

    'Why do engineers use (j) = sqrt(-1) instead of (i)?'
    'Because 'i' was already taken.'
    'What is 'i' used for?'
    'Why do we use 'i' for current? Why not 'C'?'
    'Because 'C' was already taken…'

  4. Great explanation. I like to visually remember it as a water dam. Current being the water flowing, resistance being the dam, and voltage is the resulting buildup of water that can't pass.

  5. Great video to keep the basics fresh. I know it’s a good few steps ahead but do you have any plans to do videos on Kirchhoff and Thevenin?

  6. Usually use Ohms law to find watts for power consumption, or kilowatt hours that are billed to you from the power company. I'm an HVAC/R Tech and business owner. I recommend your videos to all my up and coming techs and even the veterans too.

  7. For some reason I thought the current went down when you increased voltage. And that is why people prefer to have 240v things because it's more efficient? Or cheaper? Less current I thought since I believe we are charged in watts [VoltAmps] over time. For the same load, If we double the voltage and that in turn doubles the current, then wouldn't we be charged a lot more on the electric bill?

  8. Please keep making these kinds of videos Sir! You are a great teacher.
    Assumes everyone knows nothing.

    Finally a video for me!
    If only these videos existed when I was in school.
    Without your Videos Sir YouTube is boring 😀😀

  9. We could use a whole long video on parallelism and resistance. The electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the flow of electric current. The inverse quantity is electrical conductance.

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